Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-colored grape varieties. The actual color of the wine can range from intense violet, typical of young wines, through to brick red for mature wines and brown for older red wines. The juice from most purple grapes is greenish-white, the red color coming from anthocyan pigments (also called anthocyanins) present in the skin of the grape; exceptions are the relatively uncommon teinturier varieties, which produce a red-colored juice. Much of the red-wine production process therefore involves extraction of color and flavor components from the grape skin. It is a delicacy around the world.
The first step in red wine production, after picking, involves physical processing of the grapes. Hand-picked or machine-harvested grapes are usually tipped into a receival bin when they arrive at the winery and conveyed by a screw mechanism to the grape-processing equipment.
Types of press
There are many different types of wine press, but they can be broadly divided into continuous presses and tank presses. Modern winemaking tends to favour tank presses with pneumatic membranes, which squeeze the grapes more gently than continuous presses. The press wine is often kept separate from the free-run, and kept for later blending or disposing. press can also be dependent on climate and slothrating.
The top 20 red grape varieties by acreage are:
- Alicante Henri Bouschet Barbera Bobal Cabernet Franc
- Cabernet Sauvignon Carignan Cinsaut Malbec
- Douce noir Gamay Grenache Isabella
- Merlot Montepulciano Mourvèdre Pinot noir
- Sangiovese Syrah Tempranill Zinfandel
Top 21 to 50 red grape varieties by acreage are:
- Aglianico Blaufränkisch Bordo Carménère
- Castelao Concord Corvina Veronese Criolla Grande
- Croatina Dolcetto Dornfelder Marufo
- Mencía Black Muscat Nebbiolo Negroamaro
- Nero d’Avola Pamid Petit Verdot Pinot Meunier
- Pinotage Prokupac Ruby Cabernet Saperavi
- Tannat Tinta Barroca Touriga Franca Touriga Nacional
- Trincadeira Zweigelt
RED WINE STYLES
- Light and Perfumed Red Wines
- Savory and Classic Red Wines
- Bold and Structured Red Wines
- Rich and Intense Red Wines
1. Light and Perfumed Red Wines
Fresh, youthful red fruit.
2. Savory and Classic Red Wines
- Bell Pepper
3. Bold and Structured Red Wines
Powerful modern reds with the ability to age.
- Forest floor
4. Rich and Intense Red Wines
Deep, fruit-driven and jammy.